Vulnerabilities > CVE-2013-2581 - Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls vulnerability in Tp-Link products

Attack vector
Attack complexity
Privileges required
Confidentiality impact
Integrity impact
Availability impact
low complexity
exploit available


cgi-bin/firmwareupgrade in TP-Link IP Cameras TL-SC3130, TL-SC3130G, TL-SC3171, TL-SC3171G, and possibly other models before beta firmware LM.1.6.18P12_sign6 allows remote attackers to modify the firmware revision via a "preset" action.

Vulnerable Configurations

Part Description Count

Common Attack Pattern Enumeration and Classification (CAPEC)

  • Accessing, Modifying or Executing Executable Files
    An attack of this type exploits a system's configuration that allows an attacker to either directly access an executable file, for example through shell access; or in a possible worst case allows an attacker to upload a file and then execute it. Web servers, ftp servers, and message oriented middleware systems which have many integration points are particularly vulnerable, because both the programmers and the administrators must be in synch regarding the interfaces and the correct privileges for each interface.
  • Leverage Executable Code in Non-Executable Files
    An attack of this type exploits a system's trust in configuration and resource files, when the executable loads the resource (such as an image file or configuration file) the attacker has modified the file to either execute malicious code directly or manipulate the target process (e.g. application server) to execute based on the malicious configuration parameters. Since systems are increasingly interrelated mashing up resources from local and remote sources the possibility of this attack occurring is high. The attack can be directed at a client system, such as causing buffer overrun through loading seemingly benign image files, as in Microsoft Security Bulletin MS04-028 where specially crafted JPEG files could cause a buffer overrun once loaded into the browser. Another example targets clients reading pdf files. In this case the attacker simply appends javascript to the end of a legitimate url for a pdf ( http://path/to/pdf/file.pdf#whatever_name_you_want=javascript:your_code_here The client assumes that they are reading a pdf, but the attacker has modified the resource and loaded executable javascript into the client's browser process. The attack can also target server processes. The attacker edits the resource or configuration file, for example a web.xml file used to configure security permissions for a J2EE app server, adding role name "public" grants all users with the public role the ability to use the administration functionality. The server trusts its configuration file to be correct, but when they are manipulated, the attacker gains full control.
  • Blue Boxing
    This type of attack against older telephone switches and trunks has been around for decades. A tone is sent by an adversary to impersonate a supervisor signal which has the effect of rerouting or usurping command of the line. While the US infrastructure proper may not contain widespread vulnerabilities to this type of attack, many companies are connected globally through call centers and business process outsourcing. These international systems may be operated in countries which have not upgraded Telco infrastructure and so are vulnerable to Blue boxing. Blue boxing is a result of failure on the part of the system to enforce strong authorization for administrative functions. While the infrastructure is different than standard current applications like web applications, there are historical lessons to be learned to upgrade the access control for administrative functions.
  • Restful Privilege Elevation
    Rest uses standard HTTP (Get, Put, Delete) style permissions methods, but these are not necessarily correlated generally with back end programs. Strict interpretation of HTTP get methods means that these HTTP Get services should not be used to delete information on the server, but there is no access control mechanism to back up this logic. This means that unless the services are properly ACL'd and the application's service implementation are following these guidelines then an HTTP request can easily execute a delete or update on the server side. The attacker identifies a HTTP Get URL such as http://victimsite/updateOrder, which calls out to a program to update orders on a database or other resource. The URL is not idempotent so the request can be submitted multiple times by the attacker, additionally, the attacker may be able to exploit the URL published as a Get method that actually performs updates (instead of merely retrieving data). This may result in malicious or inadvertent altering of data on the server.
  • Target Programs with Elevated Privileges
    This attack targets programs running with elevated privileges. The attacker would try to leverage a bug in the running program and get arbitrary code to execute with elevated privileges. For instance an attacker would look for programs that write to the system directories or registry keys (such as HKLM, which stores a number of critical Windows environment variables). These programs are typically running with elevated privileges and have usually not been designed with security in mind. Such programs are excellent exploit targets because they yield lots of power when they break. The malicious user try to execute its code at the same level as a privileged system call.


descriptionTP-Link TL-SC3171 IP Cameras - Multiple Vulnerabilities. CVE-2013-2578,CVE-2013-2579,CVE-2013-2580,CVE-2013-2581. Webapps exploit for hardware platform
last seen2016-02-03
reporterCore Security
titleTP-Link TL-SC3171 IP Cameras - Multiple Vulnerabilities


data source
last seen2016-12-05
reporterCore Security Technologies
titleTP-Link TL-SC3171 Command Execution / Shell Upload / Bypass


descriptionCore Security - Corelabs Advisory Multiple Vulnerabilities in TP-Link TL-SC3171 IP Cameras 1. *Advisory Information* Title: Multiple Vulnerabilities in TP-Link TL-SC3171 IP Cameras Advisory ID: CORE-2013-0618 Advisory URL: Date published: 2013-07-30 Date of last update: 2013-07-30 Vendors contacted: TP-Link Release mode: Coordinated release 2. *Vulnerability Information* Class: OS command injection [CWE-78], Use of hard-coded credentials [CWE-798], Authentication Bypass Issues [CWE-592], Missing Authentication for Critical Function [CWE-306] Impact: Code execution, Security bypass Remotely Exploitable: Yes Locally Exploitable: No CVE Name: CVE-2013-2578, CVE-2013-2579, CVE-2013-2580, CVE-2013-2581 3. *Vulnerability Description* Multiple vulnerabilities have been found in TP-Link TL-SC3171 [1] IP camera running firmware version LM.1.6.18P12_sign5 that could allow an attacker: 1. [CVE-2013-2578] to execute arbitrary commands through the file '/cgi-bin/admin/servetest'. 2. [CVE-2013-2579] to execute arbitrary commands in a shell using hard-coded credentials. 3. [CVE-2013-2580] to perform unauthenticated remote file uploads. 5. [CVE-2013-2581] to perform unauthenticated remote firmware upgrades. 3.1. *Attack Paths* There are several attack paths that can be exploited by combining these vulnerabilities with other ones discovered by Eliezer Varade Lopez, Javier Repiso Sanchez and Jonas Ropero Castillo [2]. Additional attack paths are available, but the ones listed here allow understanding how an attacker could compromise the affected device. 3.1.1. *Attack Path I* (Authentication: none) 1. Upload a rooted firmware exploiting [CVE-2013-2581]. 2. Reboot the device by exploiting 'http://<ip-cam>/cgi-bin/reboot'[2]. 3.1.2. *Attack Path II* (Authentication: bypassed) 1. Reset the device to its factory defaults exploiting 'http://<ip-cam>/cgi-bin/hardfactorydefault'[2]. After this step, the authentication can by bypassed by using 'admin:admin' as a valid 'username:password'. 2. Reboot the device by exploiting 'http://<ip-cam>/cgi-bin/reboot'[2]. 3. Start the Telnet service exploiting [CVE-2013-2578]. 4. Login to the Telnet service using user 'qmik' (no password) [CVE-2013-2579], and use the device as a pivoting point. 4. *Vulnerable Packages* Tests and PoC were run on: . TP-Link TL-SC3171 IP camera running firmware version LM.1.6.18P12_sign5. . Other TP-Link cameras and firmware versions are probably affected too, but they were not checked. 5. *Vendor Information, Solutions and Workarounds* Vendor provides the links to (pre-release) patched firmware versions [3]. The final official versions will be released in the next few days. Please, contact TP-Link for further information. 6. *Credits* These vulnerabilities were discovered by Flavio de Cristofaro and researched with the help of Andres Blanco from Core Security Technologies. The publication of this advisory was coordinated by Fernando Miranda from Core Advisories Team. 7. *Technical Description / Proof of Concept Code* 7.1. *OS Command Injection in servetest* [CVE-2013-2578] The file '/cgi-bin/admin/servetest' has an OS command injection in several of its parameters that can be exploited by an authenticated user to execute arbitrary commands. The following proof of concept starts the telnetd service: /----- GET /cgi-bin/admin/servetest?cmd=smtp&ServerName=;/usr/sbin/telnetd;&ServerPort=25&ServerSSL=off&RcptToAddr1=q@q&AdminAddr=q@q HTTP/1.1 Accept: */* Accept-Language: en-us Referer: If-Modified-Since: Sat, 1 Jan 2000 00:00:00 GMT Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; MSIE 9.0; Windows NT 6.1; WOW64; Trident/5.0) Host: Proxy-Connection: Keep-Alive Cookie: VideoFmt=1 Authorization: Basic YWRtaW46YWRtaW4= Content-Length: 2 -----/ 7.2. *Hard-coded credentials in telnet service* [CVE-2013-2579] The affected system includes a hard-coded login with no password which could be used by a remote attacker to access the OS of the affected device using the built-in telnet service: /----- username: qmik password: (none) -----/ The 'qmik' user is allowed to execute the command 'su', allowing the user to execute arbitrary commands with root level privileges. The telnet service can be enabled through [CVE-2013-2578]. 7.3. *Unauthenticated remote file uploads* [CVE-2013-2580] The file '/cgi-bin/uploadfile' allows an unauthenticated user to perform remote file uploads as shown in the following Python PoC: /----- import requests fileName = "lala.tmp" f = open(fileName, "w") f.write("lala") f.close()"", files={fileName: open(fileName, "rb")}) -----/ The uploaded file (in this example lala.tmp) will be hosted in the '/mnt/mtd' directory. 7.4. *Unauthenticated remote firmware upgrades* [CVE-2013-2581] The file '/cgi-bin/firmwareupgrade' allows an unauthenticated user to perform remote firmware upgrades as shown in the following Python POC: /----- import requests requests.get("") fileName = "COM_T01F001_LM.1.6.18P12_sign5_TPL.TL-SC3171.bin" cookies={"VideoFmt":"1"}"", files={"SetFWFileName" : (fileName, open(fileName, "rb"))}, cookies=cookies) -----/ 8. *Report Timeline* . 2013-06-12: Core Security Technologies notifies the TP-Link team of the vulnerability. . 2013-06-18: Core Security Technologies notifies the TP-Link team of the vulnerability and set the estimated publication date of the advisory for July 10, 2013. . 2013-06-19: TP-Link answers saying that these vulnerabilities are the same as the ones published on May 28, 2013. . 2013-06-26: Core Security Technologies notifies the TP-Link team that these are new, different, vulnerabilities and sends a draft report with technical information. . 2013-06-26: Vendor acknowledges the receipt of the technical report. . 2013-07-01: Vendor requests additional technical information. . 2013-07-04: Core re-sends an improved technical report with additional information regarding possible attack paths [Sec. 3.1]. . 2013-07-10: First release date missed. . 2013-07-15: Core asks for a status update. . 2013-07-22: Vendor notifies that a patched firmware version will be released on July 29th. . 2013-07-22: Core re-schedules the advisory publication for July 29th. . 2013-07-26: Vendor notifies that a (pre-release) patched firmware version is available [3] and being tested. The final firmware version will be released in the next few days. . 2013-07-30: Advisory CORE-2013-0618 is published. 9. *References* [1] TP-Link TL-SC3171, [2] Security Analysis of IP video surveillance cameras, [3] See the online version, 10. *About CoreLabs* CoreLabs, the research center of Core Security Technologies, is charged with anticipating the future needs and requirements for information security technologies. We conduct our research in several important areas of computer security including system vulnerabilities, cyber attack planning and simulation, source code auditing, and cryptography. Our results include problem formalization, identification of vulnerabilities, novel solutions and prototypes for new technologies. CoreLabs regularly publishes security advisories, technical papers, project information and shared software tools for public use at: 11. *About Core Security Technologies* Core Security Technologies enables organizations to get ahead of threats with security test and measurement solutions that continuously identify and demonstrate real-world exposures to their most critical assets. Our customers can gain real visibility into their security standing, real validation of their security controls, and real metrics to more effectively secure their organizations. Core Security's software solutions build on over a decade of trusted research and leading-edge threat expertise from the company's Security Consulting Services, CoreLabs and Engineering groups. Core Security Technologies can be reached at +1 (617) 399-6980 or on the Web at: 12. *Disclaimer* The contents of this advisory are copyright (c) 2013 Core Security Technologies and (c) 2013 CoreLabs, and are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Share-Alike 3.0 (United States) License: 13. *PGP/GPG Keys* This advisory has been signed with the GPG key of Core Security Technologies advisories team, which is available for download at
last seen2017-11-19
titleTP-Link TL-SC3171 IP Cameras - Multiple Vulnerabilities